Joseph and Yesod – The Channel of Sustenance

We mentioned at the end of our last article that Joseph was Yesod, above his brother, which was why the tree-of-life proportions were reversed from what is normally presented as Leah over Rachel. So we just wanted to point out that the all-important reunion between Joseph and Jacob that completed and established the Tree-of-life on earth occurred in the 80th paragraph of the Torah, and as the Arizal explains below, 80 is the numerical value of Yesod.

Yesod is the dimension through which all the life forces (shefa) are funneled down to our world (level).  What the Torah (Bible) is doing here in these portions of Bereshit is reconstructing for us a schematic of how our world really works and the spiritual principles upon which it is based.

Yesod” is spelled: yud-samech-vav-dalet = 10 + 60 + 6 + 4 = 80

Before we quote the Ari verbatim below, please recall that our last article was all about the sevens(7).

From the teachings of Rabbi Yitzchak Luria

The seven names…are called ‘seven pearls’….

Another reason [this sefira] is called “yesod” is the following. What is written in the Zohar (II:92a, in Raya Mehemna) about the verse, “Remember the Shabbat day” (Ex. 20:8), concerning the seven names, is well-known. They are called “seven pearls”, and the Shabbat is called “Y-ah Ado-nai“.

These seven names are associated with the seven blessings of the Shabbat Standing Prayer (see third installment of parashat Tetzaveh), and that the fourth blessing of the Shabbat Standing Prayer, which is the only one that refers specifically to the Shabbat, is associated with the name Y-ah Ado-nai.

It is also known that the Shabbat is associated with yesod, which is called “the Seventh”.

Normally, we associate the Shabbat with malchut, the seventh midah. However, in the context of Zeir Anpin, malchut is not truly a separate sefira, but is called “the crown of the yesod“, associated physically with the glans of the male reproductive organ. Malchut comes into its own only as the full partzuf of Nukva. Thus, the “seventh” of the midot within Zeir Anpin – and therefore, the Shabbat as well – can still be considered to be part of yesod.

Therefore, the numerical value of “yesod” is the same as that of the names Y-ah Ado-nai.

Yesod” = 80, as above.

Y-ah Ado-nai” is spelled: yud-hei alef-dalet-nun-yud = (10 + 5) + (1 + 4 + 50 + 10) = 15 + 65 = 80.

These two names correspond to the two aspects with [yesod]: yesod [itself] and its “crown”. Yesod itself is called “Y-ah“, and its “crown” is called “Ado-nai“.

To Be Continued with the death bed End-of-Days revelations of Jacob to his sons.

According to the Zohar and Ari, Miketz Reveals the Date of the Final Redemption.

Miketz Reveals the Date of the Final Redemption.

This is the first of the promised Chanukah revelations, which traces  the clues to the final redemption from the Torah to the Zohar to the Arizal, back to the Torah and to us . The Torah portion Miketz falls on Chanukah every year, and chapter 2 of the corresponding Zohar portion discusses the first few words of Miketz and its connection to the End of Days.

Bereshit 41:1 “Two full years passed. Then Pharaoh had a dream. He was standing near the Nile,…”

Zohar Miketz 2:25 “And it came to pass in the end.” Rabbi Chizkiyah began with the verse: “To everything there is a season, and a time to evey purpose under the heaven” (Kohelet 3:1). Come and  behold what the Holy On, blessed be He, did below: He set a time for everything, and a fixed term for it. He fixed a term for light and darkness. He set a time for light for all nations except Israel, which now have mastery over the world, and He set time for darkness, when Israel are in exile and under the dominion of other nations.  The Holy On, blessed be He, appointed a season for all and, therefore: “To everything there is a season, and a time to every purpose. “  He asks: What us the meaning of, “and a time to every purpose?” He replies:  It means a time and season for everything that is below, that is, for all the goodness found below has a set time and season.

We’ll now discuss that the meaning the Arizal found in this Zohar portions and what it means for this generation.

“At the end of two years…. (Gen. 41:1) Vayhi miketz shenata’im yamim…” (VYHY MKZ ShNTYM YMYM)…

“Two years add up to 730 [days]. Each [solar] year is 365, and when multiplied by two = 730. Now by adding to this the six letters1 the sum total comes to 736, which equals the sum of the name Ado-nai spelled simply = 65, together with the same name spelled with the milui = 671. [Thus] 736 is called above the ‘End of Days’.

To explain, in Hebrew a “ketz” literally “an end.”  Moreover, Torah references to Yamim, substituting “days” for “years” usually refers to the days of the final redemption and advent of Moshiach and the Tree-of-life consciousness, clues that caused the Arizal to look deeper.

In reading the same Zohar chapter above, the Arizal found this:

Zohar 2:18 Come and behold: “Blessed be Adonai who day by day bears our burden” (Tehilim 68:20). The name Adonai is spelled Aleph-Dalet-Nun-Yud. This verse contains the mystery of wisdom. “day by day” is the secret of “two years (lit. ‘two years’ days’)”…

Which is why he knew there was a connection between the 730 days of two years time and the 2 spellings of Adonai ,and when adjusted for the kolel, he came up with 736 and alluded that the end of our exile process would begin in the year (5)736, 1976 in the Gregorian calendar.

What he didn’t mention or what was lost to us was that 5736 (1976) was 42 years prior to the date Rav Yehuda Halevi Ashlag gave for the advent of Moshiach, 5778 (2018 CE). As this verse in Miketz is found at 41:1 and 41 +1 = 42, this makes sense, but more so in that all Torah journeys begin with 42 and go through 42 steps, as explained by the Baal Shem Tov, Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai, and other tzaddikim. Indeed, in the very next chapter, chapter 42, Jacob begins the 210 Egyptian Exile process (journey) by sending his sons down to Egypt.

Back to us, and the year 5771, and the generation of knowledge.  Utilizing gematria, which Rav Abulafia calls one of the deepest of Torah studies, we see that the words “Two years (ShNTYM YMYM) – 2 (kolel) = 2018 ce = 5778. We now see what the Ari saw and Rabbi Shimon saw: And it shall come to pass in the end. “To everything there is a season, and a time to every purpose. “ We were given the time.  Moreover, 2018 HC was the year G-d made His Covenant with Abraham it was promised what we’d experience in the end of days.  And incidentally, it was in paragraph 42 of the Torah when Abraham began his journey as G-d told him, “Go away from your land,…”

To be Continued with further revelations about the end-of-days…

Happy Chanukah!

The Separation of the Spiritual from the Physical has begun.

What is going on right now? Can things get worse?

The spiritual tenet of kabbalah that has been lost on everyone is that when looking to solve a physical problem the only solution is a spiritual one. You can’t solve physical (material) problems with physical answers–throwing money at a situation only throws money away, but I guess we’re all learning that lesson the hard way. And there’s a reason that we’re all learning it now.

The Torah (Bible) set up a system for us, gave us a time frame, and the tools with which to navigate through that system and time span. Only we’ve chosen not to follow that system and to ignore the tools and laugh at the time frame. It’s time we pay attention. It’s no coincidence that people are being separated from their physical belongings and at astounding, imperceivable, rate. How many times have you heard dumbfounded people say “Who could have foreseen this?” in the past year?

The Chronicles of Esau in Genesis 36:1-43 contain a lot of names; why is this important to us? Many of the righteous mentioned so far in the Torah have had their own Chronicles (books) listed, but why should Esau have one? Wasn’t he the hated, bad seed brother?

Since we can know nothing by looking at its cover, let’s remove the wrapping and take a peek inside. And there is a the curious phrase, repeated several times, staring at Genesis 36:1 “Esau, that is Edom,” “AShV HVE EDVM.”

While Vav (V) is the most numerous letter in the Torah, there’s preponderance of them in this chapter 36. Perhaps since vav(V) has the numerical value of 6, and 36 is 6 x6 and the sum of all the integers from 1 – 36 = 666 there is some logical connection to Genesis 36 that we can find.

Nevertheless, the curious phrase, repeated several times, that “Esau, that is Edom,” “AShV HVE EDVM” seems to want to tell us something and each of the 3 words does contains a vav (V), making VVV or “666 leaving us with (AShHE and EDM) or the numerical value of Shalom, peace (376) and Adam, whose total gematria is 421 + 3 (kolel for the 3 words) = 424, that of Mashiach Ben David.

What’s the connection?

We know that 666 is tied into the coming of the Messiah and the dates 5778 HC (2018 CE) from the kabbalists in a good way. And we know that because of Revelations, the Christians (Edomites) have tied it in in a bad way, but if you email us we’ll let you know what Kabbalah reveals about that ominous number of the beast prophecy.

Nevertheless, let’s understand the Torah context in which we find the name, Esau. The first time the contiguous root letters of Esau (YShV) appeared in the Bible (Torah) is right after G-d finished creating the world and it is the very last word (La’asoT) “LAShVT” in the very first reading of the Torah in Genesis (Bereshit) 2:3, “And G-d blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it He rested from all the work of creating that which He had made.”

We know from chazal and what is also obvious from the Torah that everything happens in cycles of seven (7), it being the last, or malchut day. And on the seventh (7th) day we refrain from the physical and indulge in the spiritual. So Esau being within the very last word of the 7th day, the very end of the cycle might be hinting at that very end of days, when the spiritual will be separated from the physical. Also we should note, that when we separate Esau from (La’asoT) “LAShVT” we are left with LT of numerical value 430, that of the Hebrew word for soul, nefesh.

Another hint comes at the opposite end of the Torah where we find the final mention of Esau’s name. We know from chazal that the date of the Messiah prophecy for the geula, final redemption is 2018 CE and the last time the Name/word Esau is used in the Torah is in Deuteronomy (Devarim) 20:18, paragraph 72 “This is so that they will not teach you all the revolting practices with which they worship their gods, causing you to sin to G-d your Lord.”

But back to Genesis 36:8 “Esau, that is Edom,” “AShV HVE EDVM”

Edom (EDVM) is also Adam (EDM) spelled with an extra vav (V). And thus “AShHE EDM” could be “AshH EDM (to make Adam). But what does that mean?

The Arizal explains that the 8 Edomite Kings represent the physical aspect of the sefirot. To understand this we must first understand that in the Kabbalistic scenario of the vessel and the light, the vessel is also made of light and thus the same thing can have have two seemingly opposite aspects, and indeed needs to have it for existence in our world. In a sense, our world cannot hold true purity which is why the light we receive gets filtered down through all the sefirot (dimensions) and which is why the Torah is so deeply encoded behind so many layers (or veils) of truth.

Esau, that is Edom, represents the Physicality, the vessel aspect of the light, which is why Esau and Edom, etc had to be spelled with the the letter vav (V). Because, as it is known, the vav (V) plays the role of channel, and a vessel cannot channel light, only receive it.

In Genesis 36:31 it says, “These were the Kings that reigned in Edom before any Israelite King reigned.” which is saying that the Edomites must precede the Israelities in the land of Malchut (kingdom), as physicality must make a vessel to hold the spirit.

Edom is the physical Adam. Adam is the spirit (ruach) and if you recall from previous posts that Adam (EDM) is the spirit of Adam-David-Mashiach. Adam also held (was a composite of) the 600,000 souls that journeyed 2018 years from Creation to the Covenant of Abraham that lived through 430 of exile until receiving the Torah together in 2448 HC.

After reading a long list of Esau’s descendants broken down by Kings and chiefs, the last verse we read this week before the Haftatah portion is Genesis 36:43, “These were the chiefs of Edom, according to their settlements in the land they occupied. This was Esau, the father of the Edomites.” The Torah uses the phrase “in the land they occupied” to emphasize that it was temporary housing, like the body for the soul.

And the Torah uses the odd wording “This was Esau, the father of the Edomites” to show us all (the descendants, including the 8 Kings) were part of one whole. This is important because a whole can be lifted at once, where as separate parts must be addressed one at a time, a much more time consuming and laborious process.

The exact words are “Esau, father of Edom (AShV EBY EDVM)” which has the sofit numerical value of 1000, which represents the highest sefira/dimension of Keter (crown) and also the Hebrew word elef, meaning one thousand, which we know is also the letter Alef (E) spelled the exact same way. That alone is telling, but the final letters (VYM), which we know from chazal point toward the future, have the numerical value 616, as in “h’Torah, “the Torah.”

Curiously, since both Shalom and Esau have the same regular numerical value if we substitute Shalom for Esau, and use the sofit value for Shalom, the phrase becomes “Shalom father of Edom”, or “Peace, father of Edom,” and it still adds up to 1000.

Now, since we know the phrase is connected to keter, the highest level, it makes sense that the first two letters of the phrase (AShV) add up to 370, as in the 370 lights of Arich Anpin that emanate from keter. And since the last 8 letters (AShV EBY EDVM) add up to 70, we can begin to understand that the 70 nations described by the Zohar come from the 8 Kings, and the key that linked them to the light of the upper worlds was the vav (V) in Esau (AShV).

And adding to this separation of the physical from the spiritual we know that there are exactly 600,000 – 408 composite letters in each sefer Torah, not 600,000, yet we also know that these correspond to the 600,000 Jewish souls at Mt Sinai, and the different is 408 letters. Now, while 408 x 6 (vav) equals 2448, the year the Torah was received by the 600,000 at Sinai, 408 is also 51 x 8 or the value of Edom x the 8 Kings. Without the physical component, there would be nothing to house the much larger spiritual one, which also shows us that it only takes a small physical action to activate a lot of spiritual benefit.

If Esau was so hated, why does his name have the same value as that of peace (shalom)?

Because Jacob (Israel) used the tools of the Torah and spirituality to make peace with him. When Jacob overcame his fears and reached into his soul to bring Esau unconditional love, Esau changed from killer to brother and instead of biting Jacob’s neck, he hugged him. Jacob worked very hard for 21 years to gain his physical wealth and he sent Esau a large portion of it as a gift, but it wasn’t until he overcame his fears (ego) and used his spiritual insights that he won him over. After all, what did Esau want with Jacob’s physical gifts; he could have slaughtered him and taken them all. There is a reason this lesson is coming alive today.

Knowing the Israel and Esau were reunited in peace 3500 years ago, lets see what happens If we add Israel (541) and Esau (376) and take away the vav (V) of Esau that wasn’t needed once he was united with Israel (the central column channel); we get 911, the numerical value of “the Beginning.” The beginning of what?

Of the separation?

When the Torah lists the generations Of Adam, Noach, etc it rarely says someone died, but in contrast in listing the generations of Esau, all the Kings died, except the last one, Hadar (HDR), whose name signifies splendor, majesty. According to the Arizal, the 8 kings represented the sefirot in the time of Bohu V’Tohu and were shattered, giving way the purer more flowing structure of the universe we know as the world of tikune (correction). Moreover, the 8th King he said corresponded to the sefira of Yesod, which was left open for the other vessels/sefirot to flow through to form our universe once they were filtered.

We know that it’s part of our correction to recoup those holy sparks that fell from the worlds of the 8 kings and that were scattered among the 70 nations, and when enough of them have been gathered, Moshiach (the Messiah) will come to elevate the whole plane-of-existence, which is why we’ve been in exile.

We also know that Israel has been in exile amongst the 70 Nations (which spiritually are the branches of the tree-of-life) for much of the 3330 years (66.6 jubilee years) since the giving of the Torah and certainly since the Second Temple was destroyed in 70 CE (3830 HC). ut even before the Second Temple was destroyed Israel lived under Rome, also known as Edom, so as indicated by the first letters of Esau, father of the Edomites, (AShV EBY EDVM) which stand for A (70) and the two alefs (E,E) for two elef, or 2000, we have 2000 years among the 70 nations.

While the value of “father of the Edomites (EBY EDVM)” is 64, that of Din, judgment, and also 8 squared, the normal value for the full phrase “Esau, father of the Edomites, (AShV EBY EDVM)” is 440 + 1(kolel) = 441, the numerical value of emet (truth), or 21 squared. So the phrase can be looked at as “peace and Judgment = truth.”

And since truth is 21, or in actuality the Name of G-d Eyheh of value 21, squared, the 21 verses of the Haftarah portion associated with this reading of portion Yayishlach is directly related to the phrases and verses above from that portion. And in Obabiah 1:1-21we find the ultimate destruction of the physical world (the mountains of Edom) and the triumph of the spiritual (tree-of-life) reality.

Moreover, in the 21st and final verse of the portion, in Obadiah 1:21, we read, “Deliverers will go up on Mount Zion to govern the Mountains of Esau. And the kingdom will be the Lord’s.”

So this is “truth,” and we can see the final outcome, but what about the separation, the process?

It’s no coincidence that the final redemption is prophesied to occur in 5778 HC, or 2018 CE, 3760 years after G-d advised Abraham about the final redemption and made a Covenant (brit) with him called the Covenant of Abraham, and/or the Covenant of Halves.

And while Esau was the father of the Edomites who became the Christians, it’s no coincidence that the birth of actual Christianity occurred in 3760 HC (0 CE) and/or that 3760 is 10 x 376, the value of Esau and also of Peace, the Peace that came from the spiritual union of Israel and Esau.

If this union was made in Peace, why hasn’t there been peace?

Because it was a spiritual bond and once Israel (Jacob) became tied to to Esau (the physical plane) the physical aspects began obscuring and eventually overwhelming the spiritual process. And the more that happened the greater the length of time between cause and effect, and without that causal feedback, the benefits of peace over personal gain became too difficult to fathom. But in the last and final 70 years, since Israel became a nation in 1948 CE (corresponding to Abraham’s birth in 1948 HC) and the divine process of separation had begun, things have reversed themselves and the time between cause and effect has necessarily sped up.

Are we talking about separating the people? No, that’s a physical separation. We’re talking about the separation of the spiritual out of the physical. We’re taking about separating (elevating) our spiritual nature from our selfish materialistic physical nature and desires. And we’re talking on an individual bases, within ourselves.

Even though most of the world discovered religion in the final 2018 year period, in a very real sense this was the physical/material period and the first 3760 years was the spiritual one.

If you want to look for Bible code signs, I suppose you could say that 9/11 heralded the beginning of the end, of the final 18 year period when one way or another the holy sparks would have to be separated out and elevated, and to say the period hence has been an unsettled one would be an understatement.

What has begun is the forcefully separation of people from their material belongings, and the process has been speeding up as we get closer to 2018.

Was the location of the 9/11 attack a coincidence?

In order to break through the illusions of physical reality to the tree-of-life reality, what is being separated is the material (physical) from the spiritual; people from their belongings. And where were those belongings concentrated? In 2001, 42% of all the profit in America was made in financial services through Wall Street.

So was 9/11 a divine act?

Everything is a divine act, but not usually a spiritual one. Hurting someone you don’t like is not spiritual; it’s the worst kind of physical act. Helping someone, like Jacob did with Esau is the spiritual blueprint.

So what’s going on?

After 9/11, the US economy alone lost a trillion dollars. Then another trillion went down the black holes of Iraq and Afghanistan. Another trillion was siphoned off to import hyper-priced oil from the mid-east and other oil rich nations that tell us daily how much they hate us.

Next, after a few localized real estate bubbles started bursting the country took notice that people were being separated from their homes in foreclosures, and instead of applying compassion and solving the cause of the problem, the government and the financial institutions and the myriad academics that advise them, all decided to throw money at the symptoms–to give money to the very institutions that were kicking them out of their homes. How do you think that was going to play out spiritually? For the past 2000 years it probably would have been a good bet–give money to the rich and powerful and they’d see to it you’d stay in power, while the poor and meek wouldn’t be heard from again, and if they were heard from so much time would have passed that cause and effect would have been completely divorced in people’s minds. Not anymore; cause is becoming effect.

What actually happened next was a downward spiral, where tens, then hundreds, and now over a trillion dollars of the government’s (the people’s) money was thrown away and lost in trying to prop up misguided corporations that were still trying to profit from people’s misfortune. Meanwhile, even more people lost their homes, and then still more. At the same time that everyone was trying to solve physical problems with ill-advised physical solutions, the marketplace (Wall Street, where 9/11 first hit) lost about $7 trillion in value, gone in months, weeks, days, thus washing away years and decades of savings and investments by people who had planned on living off those physical assets. Then came the bankruptcies and the layoffs, and thus even more separation of people form their belongings. The spiral became faster as the newly unemployed couldn’t pay their mortgages. And the big talk in the papers was whether the Wall Street bonuses to all those people who cost everyone trillions would decline by half or only by a third?

So in the midst of this financial turmoil, the criminals and fraudsters couldn’t maintain their rouses and the headlines shifted to people who had had their life savings stolen, wiped out overnight.

And we voted in a new government, that somehow seems to be shaping itself with most of the same players as the previous governments that made all these wrong decisions. And what’s their plan: throw more money at it? A few hundred million more here, and a trillion in infrastructure construction there–rebuild the physical. Have you ever seen government contractors repair roadways and potholes; what should take days or weeks always takes years and never ever gets completed. Even if all those white collar office workers and blue collar assembly line employees who lost their jobs and dolare in danger of losing their homes would possibly find work amongst the illegal aliens on the construction sites, that trillion dollars will be lost in potholes before the first one ever gets filled.

And where are all those trillions coming from? Printing presses. That’s called devaluation. The government is wastefully devaluing all our hard currency, thus punishing everyone, even those that didn’t invest in the stock market or real estate market. The physical/material continues to evaporate.

And it’s only the beginning.

And this just describes what’s happening in the US. The problem is global and being played out similarly all over the world. As our charities dry up and our funding of relief efforts around the world stop cold, millions will suffer even more than us. And as our penchant for importing rather then manufacturing stops at our empty wallets every nation and village of the world will feel the impact, many with economies far more fragile than ours. And it’s a global spiraling effect, as they import less from us, we hurt more and contract even further. Meanwhile, people must eat, and anger spreads. Health care languishes because people are forced to make choices and food comes first; next comes the health crises, the viruses, pandemic diseases, and unchecked plagues. G-d forbid!

Was there no warning?

Sure there was. Katrina. That was huge missed opportunity for our government and institutions to show compassion.

So is the end in sight?

Sure it is. The year 2018 CE. But as for a solution to our physical problems; it’s always been there. Unconditional love. The plight millions of us are suffering now can only be felt on an individual basis and can only be solved that way too. We don’t feel compassion at hearing about a million starving people in Africa; we feel it (an entire nation feels it) for a stranded whale on a beach. Why? Because we don’t have the capacity to comprehend more than a small dose of suffering. That doesn’t make us spiritual; it makes us human. So we must do what we’re capable of. Instead of thinking about how to save 10 million foreclosures, we need to feel the suffering of the individual and his family that are losing their single home. We must put a stop to that. We must use our physical world to feel the pain of our neighbors and to physically help them with our own money and our own hands, one by one, each of us. We must share what we have, while we still have it.

It’s simplistic, as the spiritual always is, but if the government was as concerned for the individual homeowner as it was for the share price of Goldman Sachs none of this would have happened. If they would have created a superfund like they did years ago to clean up the toxic dumps, and put their money in conjunction with the money of the financial institutions that had the most to lose towards helping the 5% of the homeowners that needed immediate help and easing the situation for another 5%, we’d all be physically fine right now. And yes they’d have to put in some regulation and controls to avoid making more bad sub-prime loans in the future, but if they did that with the heart to protect people rather than their assets under management it would all work out fine. The outcome of our actions are directly linked now to the consciousness behind them.

But they didn’t and those options are a lot more difficult right now since so much has been lost already and so many more people are in trouble. So we go back to what we can do as individuals: We must share what we have, while we still have it. If not, the end truly is in sight and we will be the ones who need the help. The Bible (Torah) gave us a very simple system. It all boiled down to one line:

Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:18 “You must love your neighbor as (you love) yourself. I am God.”

Could it be any plainer, any simpler, any clearer? This is how we separate the spiritual from the physical. That message was reinforced by more than a billion people since the year 3760 HC (0 CE) yet in crisis after crisis, opportunity after opportunity, it was lost. Yes, the world became very religious in the past 2000 years, but where was the love? Where was the spiritual? What were the “revolting practices with which they worship their gods,” from Deuteronomy (Devarim) 20:18. It was idol worship, the worship of money, of the material. The Titans of Wall Street became the gods, and the rock stars, sports heroes, movie stars, anyone with huge conspicuous wealth. We worshiped them. We worshiped the McMansions, the home theater systems, the exotic vacations, the giant SUVs, and the designer clothes.

We forgot our human dignity, our soul, the aspect of G-d and the souls within our suffering brethren. It’s not too late. It may be more difficult to find the physical means to help someone now, but those that need it are that much closer to us. We must all take our hands out of our pockets and reach out to one another.

B”H May G-d help us to help each other that we may all elevate above our physical trappings and receive Mashiach (Messiah) consciousness together.

If you’re interested in the prophecies and Biblical dating or how 666, etc fits in to date of the final redemption in 5778 (2018 CE) given by chazal please read The Divine Calendar available at www.DivineCalendar.com where it’s all explained.